Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a genetic muscle disorder in which the muscles of the face, shoulder blades and upper arms are among the. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with the progressive weakening of the muscles starting in the face, shoulders, and upper arms. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common types of muscular dystrophy. It has distinct regional involvement and.

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A large family was reported with a phenotype indistinguishable from FSHD in which no pathological changes at the 4q site or translocation of 4qq are found. In the other half of cases of de novo FSHD, the pathogenic contraction of the D4Z4 array likely occurs within the germlineprior to fertilization.

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

The phenotype was more severe in compound heterozygotes compared to carriers of 1 reduced allele, but the differences were not facioescaploumeral significant. Substantiation for this idea can be found in the reports of Lunt et al [] and Tawil et al []. In 9 informative families, they found a maximum lod score of The DUX4 open reading frame is present in each 3. Counseling services psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker.

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

Goto et al [] drew similar conclusions in an analysis of penetrance in 85 kindreds. Evaluation of parents may determine that one is affected but has escaped previous diagnosis because of a milder phenotypic presentation.


Interchromosomal repeat array interactions between chromosomes 4 and Deficiency of complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in a patient with facioscapulohumeral disease. The probe used, p13E, was unable to recognize proximally extended deletion alleles.

Molecular combing reveals allelic combinations in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. Inresearchers undertook a “review [of] how the contributions from many labs over many years led to an understanding of a fundamentally new mechanism of human disease” and articulated how the unifying genetic model and subsequent research represent a “pivot-point in FSHD research, transitioning the field from discovery-oriented studies to translational studies aimed at developing therapies based on a sound model of disease pathophysiology.

See Molecular Genetic Testing. In severe cases, ventilatory support may be required.

Severe phenotype in infantile facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Differential Diagnosis Disorders that are similar clinically to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy FSHD but easily differentiated by their distinct muscle histopathology include the following: For fcioescapuloumeral, excerpts of GeneReviews chapters for use in lab reports and clinic notes are a permitted use.

Progression is usually slow and continuous; however, many affected individuals describe a stuttering course with periods of disease inactivity followed by periods of rapid deterioration.

All individuals with FSHD carry a permissive haplotype. Diagnostic, predictive, and prenatal testing for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: They suggested ‘that the gene coding for this disorder may be different from that responsible for conventional facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.


The brother, aged 13 years, also had sensorineural hearing loss, marked tortuosity of retinal arterioles, early onset and progression of severe restrictive pulmonary dysfunction, and cor faciescapuloumeral.


Muscle weakness of the face is distrogia, and may include:. The second patient, who was somatic mosaic for a contracted D4Z4 repeat on a 4A allele, also had a mild phenotype. Serum concentration of creatine kinase CK is normal to elevated in individuals with FSHD and usually does not exceed three to five times the upper limit of the normal range.

Contrary to the suggestion of Mills et al. Pathogenic missenseframeshift, and splicing variants have been identified in FSHD2 families [ Lemmers et al b ]. This particular diistrofia setting containing the pathogenic sequences was named 4APAS 4A polyadenylation signal; Scionti et al.

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy – GeneReviews┬« – NCBI Bookshelf

In support of this possibility, the authors report a phenotypic dosage effect in both of the compound heterozygotes in comparison to other family members. Prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis PGD for at-risk pregnancies require prior identification of the pathogenic variant in the family.

A D4Z4 locus with 11 to repeat units i.

Individuals appear to require the existence of 11 or fewer repeat units to be at risk for FSHD. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.